(PDF) Cargo liquefaction in bulk carriers: a review
Cargo liquefaction in bulk carriers: a review ... objectives have been performed by three major iron ore producing companies. ... on characterization and assessment of iron ore for cargo liquefaction.
Liquefaction of Iron ore cargo caused vessel to list & ground
Report of the investigation into the listing and grounding of m.v. Black Forest reveals that the accident was the result of liquefaction of cargo - iron ore fines Investigation into the causes of grounding and subsequent listing of the 17,240 DWT Black Forest has only reaffirmed the dictum that the ...
Precautions against bulk cargo which may liquefy
Precautions against hazards of bulk cargo which may liquefy Certain cargoes, such as concentrates and some coals, contain moisture that can cause the cargo to liquefy (for example, copper concentrates and certain grains including sago and tapioca can show the same characteristics as a liquid). What is Liquefaction?
Bulk cargo liquefaction guidance - DNV GL
Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which a soil-like material is abruptly transformed from a solid dry state to an almost fluid state. Many common bulk cargoes, such as iron ore fines, nickel ore and various mineral concentrates, are examples of materials that may liquefy.
Liquefaction of Nickel Ore cargoes - UK P&I
Bulk carriers have been facing the issue of Liquefaction for a long time with the loss of some ships being attributed to liquefaction of Iron Ore exported from India. However, strong government measures seem to have reduced the dangers substantially in that sector (though some concerns persist.)In recent times the majority of Liquefaction incidents relate to Nickel ore cargoes being exported ...
The sinking of a bauxite carrier, and why it could have ...
Jan 09, 2015· The problems of cargo liquefaction are well-known in the shipping and dry bulk handling industries, and they are certainly well-understood by the marine and cargo insurance market too. However, incidents still occur. Iron ore cargoes, especially fines, can undergo liquefaction easily with elevated moisture contents.
Understanding and Managing the Liquefaction of Bulk Ores
Iron ore, nickel ore, coal slurry, sand slurry, and other wet minerals or fines are all susceptible. Liquefaction is a particularly dangerous issue as it turns what appears to be an apparently safe cargo into something that can have a significantly detrimental effect on a vessel's stability.
CARGO LIQUEFACTION AND DANGERS TO SHIPS
Fig 2: Iron ore fines before and after liquefaction  2.1 ACCIDENTS and TOTAL LOSS DUE TO CARGO LIQUEFACTION There have been a series of total losses and serious incidents caused by cargo liquefaction. This may result in serious stability problems as loss of lives and total loses ... CARGO LIQUEFACTION AND DANGERS TO SHIPS ...
iron ore – Maritime Accident Casebook
North of English P&I Club, Nepia, has issued and alert regarding post-monsoon loading iron ore cargoes in India. Liquefaction of cargo is, unfortunately a common cause of ships foundering. Warns Nepia: "The risks of loss of life, damage to the environment and loss of property are only too apparent, but if a Member fails to comply with the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code and ...
Liquefaction of - GARD
Iron ore fines before and after liquefaction. 2014 5 safe sailing conditions for a cargo with unsafe moisture content. Liquefaction can occur unpredictably even in relatively calm conditions on a vessel at anchorage or proceeding at low speed. It is for these reasons that SOLAS
Moisture content limits of Iron Ore Fines to prevent ...
Mar 10, 2016· Iron Ore Fines (IOF) are a product of iron ore, commonly having a particle size less than 6.3 mm, which is transported around the world in bulk carriers. Since the holds of bulk carriers are not designed to carry liquid, if liquefaction of IOF or other minerals occurs, it can cause the vessel carrying the cargo to list or even capsize.
Claims Report | Cargo Iron Ore Fines New Flame ...
Liquefaction of Iron Ore Fine s from India. THE SWEDISH CLUB TRITON 1-2010 25 Claims Report | New Flame Summary Advice for Masters 8 Follow the IMSBC Code 2009 requirements in relation to Class A cargoes. 8 Ensure that certification showing the moisture content of the cargo
Bulk cargo liquefaction - Norwegian Hull Club
Bulk cargo liquefaction By Alex Gullen, Senior Claims Handler, Norwegian Hull Club Introduction: Shipping is a truly derivative industry, susceptible and constantly required to adapt to the vagaries of the underlying trades which it serves to facilitate. Experience has shown that the regulatory
Iron ore loading & causes of iron ore liquefaction during ...
Iron ore liquefaction cases In 2009 two ships - the 'Asian Forest' and the 'Black Rose' - capsized and sank following liquefaction of iron ore fines which they …
CARRIAGE OF NICKEL ORE AND IRON ORE FINES : Detailed …
Jun 01, 2012· (2) Iron Ore Fines When iron ore is processed to allow its use in the iron/steel making industry, it is first separated into lumps and fines. Iron ore fines are the less desirable, and lower value, product of this processing. They also have a higher moisture content than the iron ore lumps.
Liquefaction Incidents of Mineral Cargoes on Board Bulk ...
Liquefaction is a frequently occurring problem taking place when transporting wet granular solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers. Liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo can occur when excessive dynamic loading, induced by rough seas and vessel vibrations, is transmitted to the cargo. From 1988 to 2015, there have been 24 suspected liquefaction incidents reported, which resulted in 164 ...
Determination of the transportable moisture limit of iron ...
In 2013, over 500 million metric tons of Iron Ore Fines (IOF) were transported around the world using bulk carriers. Under certain conditions IOF, while being transported, can possibly undergo liquefaction. Since 2006, there has been eight reported
Shaking Liquefies Iron Ore! Did it Sink the Giant Vessel ...
Apr 05, 2017· Iron ore liquefaction blamed: While an investigation into the accident is still underway, a theory that the iron ore liquefied and shifted the vessel has been floated. If the theory turns out to be true, it will be one of the several maritime accidents blamed on iron or nickel ore liquefaction.
Focus: Cargoes subject to liquefaction - SAFETY4SEA
IMSBC Code Group A - Nickel Ore - Iron Ore Fines - Bauxite Cargo liquefaction may result in cargo shift and loss of stability; this has been the cause of a number of serious casualties during the last years and now liquefaction is being considered as a major hazard for bulk carriers. Liquefaction …
Iron Ore Fines - NEPIA
of Iron Ore Fines In recent years there have been a number of high profile incidents involving suspected liquefaction of iron ore fines. This briefing discusses iron ore fines, the problems it may present during carriage and the response of the international shipping community.
Iron ore - Wikipedia
Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil ".
Liquefaction of unprocessed mineral ores - Iron ore fines ...
Iron ore fines before and after liquefaction. Shippers must declare the moisture content separately for each cargo hold of the vessel, unless sampling has shown that the moisture content is uniform throughout the entire consignment. 12 In concentrates, the moisture content is often sufficiently uniform, but in unprocessed ores such as iron ore ...
India: Iron Ore Fines - Risk of Liquefaction - westpandi.com
Oct 10, 2007· The iron ore fines were apparently loaded from open stockpiles which had been exposed to heavy rain. Two of the ships developed a severe list on passage and were subsequently beached. The Code of Safe Practice of Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code) states that "cargoes which contain a certain proportion of small particles and a certain amount of ...
Investigating the Susceptibility of Iron Ore to Liquefaction
Investigating the Susceptibility of Iron Ore to Liquefaction ... Track Citations; Permissions; Share. Abstract. Liquefaction of cargo in a bulk carrier can cause the cargo to shift, which in turn can cause a ship to list and eventually can cause the ship to capsize. When liquefaction occurs, a material undergoes a transition from a solid to a ...
Catastrophic Failure of Tailings Dam in Brazil
Nov 06, 2015· A risk of static liquefaction has previously been studied with iron ore tailings in the mine's area. It is much too early to know the cause or causes of the Samarco site failure, though. A catastrophic tailings dam failure at an iron-ore mine in Brazil has led to multiple fatalities and injuries, according to multiple news outlets.
(PDF) Moisture content limit of iron ore fines for the ...
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Hydrodynamics (ICHD 2014) October 19 – 24, 2014 Singapore MOISTURE CONTENT LIMIT OF IRON ORE FINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF LIQUEFACTION IN BULK CARRIERS M.C. MUNRO, A. MOHAJERANI School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
liquefaction – Maritime Accident Casebook
Liquefaction of iron ore fines was implicated in the sinking of MV Black Rose in September 2009 with the death of the ship's chief engineer as he desperately tried to save the vessel. MV Asian Forest, which sank in July 2009 off Mangalore and remains off the Indian coast, was another victim of the same phenomenon. Continue reading »
Iron ore (fines) - Cargo Handbook - the world's largest ...
Iron Ore (fines) (Liquefaction) 'Fines' is a general term used to indicate the physical form of a mineral or similar cargo and, as the name suggests, such cargoes include a large proportion of small particles. The transportation of iron ore fines by sea from the Indian subcontinent has proved problematic in recent years when the moisture ...
India: Lifting of Iron Ore Mining and Export Restrictions ...
Jan 29, 2014· India: Lifting of Iron Ore Mining and Export Restrictions. 29 January 2014. ... There have been a number of incidents in relation to possible liquefaction of Indian iron ore over the years, some of which are well reported and some of which the Association has first hand knowledge.
Tackling Cargo Liquefaction - UK P&I
Group C cargoes have been known to exhibit Group A cargo characteristics - especially when wet. Nickel ore, iron ore fines and bauxite for instance, have all exhibited liquefaction properties despite being originally unclassified or listed as Group C cargoes.
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